- details of the RFID standards including the ISO RFID standards (inc ISO 18000) and EPCglobal standards used to specify and standardise RFID systems and elements.
RFID, Radio Frequency Identification technology tutorial includes:• What is RFID? - technology tutorial • RFID history • RFID coupling techniques • RFID tags and tagging • RFID readers and writers • RFID antennas • RFID frequencies & bands • RFID security & privacy • RFID standards
NFC Near Field Communications
Like many other technologies, RFID standards are used. RFID standards, as any other standards enable manufacturers to make the same products for a variety of markets and in this way gain the economies of scale.
RFID standards also enable products from different manufacturers to operate together. One example may be for tags which are used in very large quantities and manufacturers may want to source from two suppliers to provide reliability.
RFID standards bodies
There are two main international RFID standards bodies or standardisation bodies:
- ISO - International Standards Organisation
- EPCglobal - Electronics Product Code Global Incorporated
Although these two organisations provide the main RFID standards organisations, there is also a plethora of other standards that apply to niche areas of RFID.
In terms of the standardisation organisations ISO is the longest established. In 1996 it set up a joint committee with IEC to look at standardisation for RFID technology.
The ISO RFID standards fall into a number of categories according to the aspect of RFID that they are addressing. These include: air interface and associated protocols; data content and the formatting; conformance testing; applications; and various other smaller areas.
In addition to the ISO RFID standards, there are also the standards from EPC Global. In 1999 a number of industrial companies with MIT set an consortium known as the Auto-ID consortium with the aim of researching and standardising RFID technology.
In 2003 this organisation was split with the majority of the standardisation activities coming under a new entity called EPCglobal. The Auto-ID Center retained its activities associated with the research into RFID technologies.
Auto-ID tag standards
In order to be able to standardise the RFID tags, the Auto-ID Center devised a series of classes for RFID tags. was generated and these still form the basis for a developed system of RFID tag classes seen today:
- Class 0: Basic read-only passive tag using backscatter where the tag was programmed at the time the tag chip was made.
- Class 1: Basic read-only passive tag using backscatter with one-time non-volatile programme capability.
- Class 2: Passive backscatter tag with up to 65k of read-write memory.
- Class 3: Semi-passive tag with up to 65 k read-write memory and a battery incorporated to provide increased range.
- Class 4: Active tag using a with battery to enable extra functionality within the tag and also to provide power for the transmitter.
- Class 5: An active tag that provides additional circuitry to communicate with other class 5 tags.
The responsibilities for Class 0 and Class 1 RFID tag definitions and standards was handed on to EPC Global in 2003.
Although other newer RFID tag standards and now available, reference is still made to these original tag classes.
Gen2 RFID tag standard
In 2004 EPCglobal began the creation of a second generation protocol, often referred to as EPCglobal Gen2. While the EPCglobal Gen2 RFID standard is not backwards compatible with the Class 0 and Class 1 tags, it aims to provide a worldwide RFID tag standard that is compatible with ISO standards.
RFID standards tabulation
Some of the main RFID standards are summarised in the table below.
|ISO 10536||ISO RFID standard for close coupled cards|
|ISO 11784||ISO RFID standard that defines the way in which data is structured on an RFID tag.|
|ISO 11785||ISO RFID standard that defines the air interface protocol.|
|ISO 14443||ISO RFID standard that provides the definitions for air interface protocol for RFID tags used in proximity systems - aimed for use with payment systems|
|ISO 15459||Unique identifiers for transport units (used in supply chain management)|
|ISO 15693||ISO RFID standard for use with what are termed vicinity cards|
|ISO 15961||ISO RFID standard for Item Management (includes application interface (part 1), registration of RFID data constructs (part 2), and RFID data constructs (part 3).|
|ISO 15962||ISO RFID standard for item management - data encoding rules and logical memory functions.|
|ISO 16963||ISO RFID standard for item management - unique identifier of RF tag.|
|ISO 18000||ISO RFID standard for the air interface for RFID frequencies around the globe|
|ISO 18001||RFID for item management - application requirements profiles.|
|ISO 18046||RFID tag and interrogator performance test methods.|
|ISO 18047||The ISO RFID standard that defines the testing including conformance testing of RFID tags and readers. This is split into several parts that mirror the parts for ISO 18000.|
|ISO 24710||Information technology, automatic identification and data capture techniques - RFID for item management - Elementary tag license plate functionality for ISO 18000 air interface.|
|ISO 24729||RFID implementation guidelines - part : RFID enabled labels; part 2: recyclability of RF tags; part 3: RFID interrogator / antenna installation.|
|ISO 24730||RFID real time locating system: Part 1: Application Programming Interface (API); Part 2: 2.4 GHz; Part 3: 433 MHz; Part 4: Global Locating Systems|
|ISO 24752||System management protocol for automatic identification and data capture using RFID|
|ISO 24753||Air interface commands for battery assist and sensor functionality|
|ISO 24769||Real Time Locating System (RTLS) device conformance test methods|
|ISO 24770||Real Time Locating System (RTLS) device performance test methods|
ISO 18000 series RFID standards
The ISO 18000 series standards is a series of standards that define the air interface for the different RFID frequencies in use around the globe. There is a total of seven standards withn the ISO 18000 series as outlined in the table below:
|ISO 18000 Standard||Details of the particular ISO 18000 series standard|
|ISO 18000-V1||Generic parameters for air interfaces for globally accepted frequencies|
|ISO 18000-V2||Air interface for 135 KHz|
|ISO 18000-V3||Air interface for 13.56 MHz|
|ISO 18000-V4||Air interface for 2.45 GHz|
|ISO 18000-V5||Air interface for 5.8 GHz|
|ISO 18000-V6||Air interface for 860 MHz to 930 MHz|
|ISO 18000-V7||Air interface at 433.92 MHz|
RFID standards are now widespread in their use, and although EPCglobal and ISO are separate organisations, there are efforts to move towards a single RFID standards scenario, rather than having two sets of competing RFID standards.
By Ian Poole
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