# Mathematical, Math Symbols List or Chart

### In this section

There are many signs, symbols and operators that are used in mathematical equations.

Many of these mathematical of math symbols are in common use, although many are not.

As some mathematical symbols are not often used, a list or chart of them is included here, including the more common symbols for completeness.

Below is a list, table or chart of some of the more common mathematical symbols that may be seen in a variety of areas.

Mathematical
Symbols
Name
Meaning
Explanation / example
of Mathematical Symbols
+ Plus
The addition of two or more quantities, e.g. 2 + 3 = 5
- Minus This represents the subtraction of one quantity from another, e.g. 3 - 2 = 1
× Multiplication, multiply This operator represents the multiplication of two quantities, e.g. 3 × 2 = 6
* Multiplication The * is the same as the x multiplication sign, but it is often used in computer terminology as a result of possible confusion with the letter 'x'.
Multiplication The ⋅ is the same as the × multiplication sign, but it is often used in mathematical notations to prevent possible confusion with the letter 'x'. e.g. y × x is often written as y ⋅ x.
÷ Division, divide This is used to indicate that one number is divided by another, e.g. 3 ÷ 2 = 1.5
/ Division, divide This is used instead of the ÷ character which is not widely used in computer characters. An example would be 3 / 2 = 5, and it represents the format of fractions.
= Equals x = y means that x and y are equal and represent the same value.
Not equal to x ≠ y means that x and y are not the same and do not represent the same value, e.g. 3 ≠ 4.
Therefore, hence Sometimes used in proofs before logical consequences
~ Similar to m ~ n means the quantities m and n have the same order of magnitude, or general size, e.g. 110 ~ 111.
Almost equal x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y, e.g. 110 ≈ 110.112233
Congruent to
Sum This sign is used where a sum of quantities is required, The range over which the sum takes places are normally marked at the bottom and top right hand sides of the ∑ sign.
Equivalent This sign is used to represent equivalence. The two items that are equivalent would not be directly equal.
Square root This is used to indicate the square root of a number, e.g. √2 = 1.414
Integral This is used to indicate that an equation is integrated. The range over which the integration takes places are normally marked at the bottom and top right hand sides of the ∫ sign. For example ∫ f(x) dx represents a function whose derivative is f.
Contour integral Similar to the standard integral, but this mathematical symbol is used to denote a single integration over a contour, i.e. a closed curve or loop.
δ delta
Proportional This symbol is used to indicate proportionality, possibly to show that when one figure doubles so does the other. For example y ∝ x when y = k ⋅ x
Infinity
AND Used to indicate the Boolean "AND" operator
OR Used to indicate the Boolean "OR" operator
Angle Used to indicate an angle. It may be used in a variety of ways, possibly along with a figure to show it represents an angle.
Perpendicular Used to indicate that two lines are perpendicular to each other.
± Plus or minus. Used in a variety of ways to indicate that the figure could be plus or minus. It is often used to provide a range, e.g. 10 ± 2 or equivalently 10 ± 20% means the range from 10 ? 2 to 10 + 2, or 10 + 20% or 10 - 20%.

While there may be other mathematical symbols, math symbols that are used on some occasions, the list or chart above covers most of the commonly used ones..

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