Focus on Test

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from Rohde & Schwarz

Testing is key to any electronics activity. It is necessary to test an item to ensure that it operates correctly. The test equipment is also key as it provides the functionality to be able to make the tests that are needed - having the right test equipment and knowing how to use it of great importance. In this area, discover some important insights into testing, test equipment and some useful techniques that can be used.

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R&S NRQ6 Frequency Selective Power Sensor

The R&S NRQ6 frequency selective power sensor is a revolutionary new sensor that combines the accuracy of a power meter with the dynamic range of a spectrum analyzer. It performs extremely precise and fast power measurements down to -130 dBm. It provides precise and fast continuous average power measurements down to –130 dBm; it enables I/Q data capturing for RF vector signal analysis; provides trace measurements and allows ultra-fast triggered measurements; and it enables easy ACLR measurements. Read all about this remarkable power sensor.

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The challenge of testing 5G antenna performance

Antenna testing for 5G mobile communications will present some new and interesting challenges. The wide frequency range, the greater number of antenna elements and the lack of conventional external RF connectors make 5G antenna characterisation challenging. To assess the complete performance of 5G over-the-air (OTA), e.g. beam characteristics, coexistence testing and near-field and far-field measurements, fast and accurate pattern measurements are essential. Find out more about 5G antenna testing.

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Pre-5G-NR Signal Generation and Analysis

This application note shows how to use Rohde & Schwarz signal generators and analyzers for testing early 5G New Radio components, chipsets and devices. Methods for easy creation and analysis of custom OFDM are explained. The solution provides

  • a single user interface for signal generation and analysis configuration

  • Flexible OFDM configuration and signal generation incl. flexible pilot and data allocation

  • User defined modulation schemes including complex scenarios, e.g. 5G NR PSS

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Characterization of SIGFOX Devices

SIGFOX is a low power Wireless standard for M2M applications that is being increasingly deployed. The application note guides developers and manufactures of SIGFOX Devices to perform the required and recommended measurements with test solutions from Rohde & Schwarz. The note will help bring ultranarrowband IoT devices and applications using SIGFOX technology to the market as fast as possible and help ensure the desired quality and performance.

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Increase the IP connection security of your IoT device

With M2M communications for the Internet of Things becoming more widespread and many low cost devices being deployed that are all connected via the Internet, one of the major issues is that of security. Even low cost devices must have high levels of security so they don't become highjacked and used for DNS attacks, etc. Security is also naturally very important when the data being transmitted is more important. The term IP connection security originates from the IT world and describes the procedure used to secure the communications channels between two devices, typically by using authentication and encryption. Authentication and encryption are required for all communications channels to the Internet in order to secure the information exchanged. Find out more about security for the IOT. . . .

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Characterization of LoRa Devices

LoRa or Long Range is a form of low power low data rate communications aimed at M2M communications for the IoT. It is able to offer long distance coverage using low power as a result of the modulation scheme and receiver characteristics. However, before devices can be used in a LoRaWAN network, they must among other things meet country-specific wireless communications regulations. This application note shows developers and manufacturers of devices with LoRa wireless technology how transmitter measurements are conducted in line with FCC Part 15.247. It also describes how important receiver characteristics can be verified by metrological means. In this context, battery life in particular plays a key role in IoT applications. A further chapter describes how current consumption of LoRa wireless modules can be measured reliably.

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Bluetooth Low Energy (V5.0) RF-Test for Internet of Things Applications

One of the most important standards now being used with many IoT applications is Bluetooth and in particular Bluetooth Low Energy. Before a new product with Bluetooth functionality can be launched, the qualification process defined by the Bluetooth SIG must be successfully completed. To save time and money, performance tests need to be performed in the development stage. This application note describes how to use the R&S CMW platform to perform the measurements defined in Bluetooth test specification version 5.

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Battery life measurements in the connected car

Battery life is a major concern for any portable or mobile device. Automotive applications are now different. As complex applications are added to the connected car, it becomes increasingly important to understand how cellular and non-cellular wireless connections consume power. For example, modules such as those defined for eCall/ERA-Glonass are expected to continue transmitting after a crash for a defined period of time, and telematics units need to regularly attach to the cellular network and may even be required to download a large firmware update over a cellular connection when the car’s engine isn’t running. Find out more . . .

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Testing the IP connection security of telematics units

The security of any item on a vehicle is key to its overall security. On device on the vehicle that lets in a hacker is of huge concern and as a result security testing is very important. A considerable number of vehicles will be connected to the Internet using non-cellular technology such as WLAN or a cellular network such as LTE/LTE-A. Whatever route is provided for external connectivity, the security must be rigorously tested. Find out more . . .

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RF Testing on Automotive Infotainment Devices

Automotive infotainment has come a very long way in recent years. What used to be the car radio has evolved from adding a cassette player to state of the art entertainment on the move. Now infotainment is far more complicated enabling mobile phones to be connected, music devices, SatNav and many more items. The RF testing these can present a real challenge. Find out how to effectively test these systems . . .

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Automotive Radar Sensors - RF Signal Analysis and Inference Tests

Road safety is a global challenge at present and will be in the future. Automotive radar has become a keyword in this area and pushes again a step forward to increase driving comfort, crash prevention and even automated driving. To ensure that any radar systems perform to the required standard they must be tested thoroughly before they are used. Find out more . . . .

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USB power delivery compliance testing with Rohde & Schwarz digital oscilloscopes

Digital oscilloscopes are able to provide new levels of fault-finding functionality. They are able to provide much higher levels of insight into the operation of digital circuits which can prove invaluable in many instances. One of the key advantages of USB power delivery (USB PD) supported by USB Type-C™ connectors is the capability to transmit power up to 100 W. Using low speed signalling, the devices negotiate a USB PD profile. Suppliers of USB Type-C components and device vendors utilising the USB PD standard need to ensure interoperability in terms of protocol handshake and signal integrity. Raed more . . .

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Quick and efficient troubleshooting with the R&S®Scope Rider

Robust and portable oscilloscopes are very important for field service and many other applications. Signal faults and anomalies can cause electrical and electronic systems to fail and they may be located anywhere. Especially in the field, these errors can lead to system downtimes and produce high costs. Consequently, finding them quickly and efficiently as well as identifying their source are crucial. Find out how to achieve fast effective fault finding . . .

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Testing IoT designs with the R&S®RTO2000 - Focus EMI Debugging

The need for Internet of Things (IoT) solutions can arise fast. In most cases, wireless communications modules are added to an embedded design. When designing and debugging IoT systems, many different measurements need to be performed. Since developers are very familiar with using an oscilloscope for voltage and time measurements, they also want to use it to for all other necessary measurements. And now they can – with the R&S®RTO2000 multi-domain oscilloscope. Find out more . . .

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Comparison of jitter measurements in the time and frequency domain

Jitter on a signal is of major importance for systems transmitting data. It is recommended to use jitter measurement instruments for both the time and frequency domain in order to differentiate between fast and slow moving artifacts. Read more . . .

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5G Waveform Candidates

5G mobile communications is ow being standardised and development activities have also started. One of the key issues is that of the waveforms to be used. Find out all about the 5G candidate waveforms for transmitting data over 5G networks.

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Antenna Beam Characterization of 5G Mobile Devices and Base Stations

With frequencies of 28GHZ being proposed for 5G technology, t is necessary tog et up to speed on how to measure aspects like beamsteering and other key parameters. Download this useful whitepaper to gain some key insights into beamsteering and other related aspects of base station technology. Conducted measurements will be mainly replaced by over-the-air measurements of electromagnetic radiation. Rohde & Schwarz offers the R&S®NRPM Over-the-Air (OTA) Power Measurement Solution that perfectly fits such measurement needs. Read more . . .

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Antenna Array Testing - Conducted and Over the Air: The Way to 5G

5G is anticipated to revolutionise connectivity - it is far more than just another cellular network. As a result, networks will need to offer more capacity and flexibility while lowering the operational expenses of the system. Two new technologies can simultaneously address both the increase in capacity and the increase in energy efficiency: Virtualization & Massive MIMO. This white paper provides key insights into test solutions addressing current and future requirements for antenna verification including both conducted and over-the-air (OTA) test methods, which result from applying Massive MIMO antenna technology. Find out all you need to know about these exciting new technologies.

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Outphasing, Envelope & Doherty Transmitter Test & Measurement

Energy efficiency RF transmitter amplifiers continues to be of paramount importance. Meeting the efficiency challenge is increasingly difficult at higher operating frequencies and bandwidths, such as those proposed for 5G.

Technologies including Doherty amplifiers, envelope tracking as well as architectures that use predictive, post-correction linearization are widely used. Their predictive nature enables distortion to be (in theory) completely eliminated, irrespective of the non-linear properties of the individual signal paths.

Find out more about these technologies and their applications for the 3.5 GHz NR (5G New Radio) candidate band. These techniques can easily be transposed to use in K-band satellite applications or mmW NR candidate bands, where efficiency is an even more crucial design target with non-negotiable linearity constraints. Read more . . .

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Multi-Channel Signal Generation Applications with R&S®SMW200A

The R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator has the outstanding ability to simultaneously generate up to eight independent signals from a single instrument. The advanced multi-channel architecture allows realizing even complex applications like MSR, carrier aggregation, MIMO or enhanced interference scenarios with a minimum of effort. Read more . . .

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RF Pulse Measurements in Time and Frequency Domains

RF pulse measurements, to characterize the signal in the frequency domain, are traditionally carried out on an RF spectrum analyzer. For time related pulse parameters, oscilloscopes are widely used. However, the measurement capabilities of state of the art test and measurement equipment has evolved over time and crosses domains. With a combination of a digital oscilloscope and dedicated pulse analysis software, pulse signals can be analyzed in both domains, frequency and time.

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Long-range low-power wireless network have the potential to create the Internet of Agricultural Things Mark Patrick | Mouser Electronics
Long-range low-power wireless network have the potential to create the Internet of Agricultural Things
The application of technology has always driven an increase in productivity, the two are inextricably linked because it is often the demand for higher productivity that provides the motivation for achieving technological breakthroughs; necessity is the mother of invention, after all.

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