Testing is key to any electronics activity. It is necessary to test an item to ensure that it operates correctly. The test equipment is also key as it provides the functionality to be able to make the tests that are needed - having the right test equipment and knowing how to use it of great importance. In this area, discover some important insights into testing, test equipment and some useful techniques that can be used.
Fast digital interfaces like the USB 3 interface transfer data at phenomenally high rates. Many oscilloscopes cannot cope wit this, and those that can find that the cables introduce attenuation, and delays. A concept called de-embedding enables these inaccuracies to be removed. Find out how this can be achieved int his useful video.Read more
When analyzing the robustness of data transmission systems, jitter is a key indicator. It is recommended to use jitter measurement instruments for both the time and frequency domain in order to differentiate between fast and slow moving artifacts. Jitter measurements are not always easy, so this paper provides some very useful insights. Read more . . .Read more
The R&S SMA100B signal generator offers a remote emulation feature that makes it possible to control the instrument by commands other than the built-in native SCPI commands. This feature allows the user to replace signal generators, e.g. from other manufacturers, with the R&S SMA100B without having to change the remote control code. This feature can be particularly useful when needing to replace a generator to improve performance, to use a generator that is already available, or to use a new generator because the older one is no longer supported.Read more
Signal sources can be one of the most important elements when testing any system. Put an imperfect signal into a system, then it can give rise to issues that have not been caused by the unit under test. Accordingly choosing the best signal source is key. This video looks at the example of using a Rohde & Schwarz signal source for testing ADCs, and it shows how using a good signal source like this can overcome many issues that might be experienced with lesser equipment.Read more
Clock sources are very important in testing many circuits, and they are often forgotten. Modern digital designs and data converters can only work as well as the clock source allows. To bring out the best performance of a data converter design, an ideal clock source is required to minimize any influence on the signal purity of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) output or the sampled data of an analog-to-digital (ADC) converter. As clock rates increase, the requirements for signal quality remain or become even more demanding. The bottom line is that you need a flexible clock source that can provide the signals needed for today’s and tomorrow’s designs with minimal jitter and noise as well as best spectral purity.Read more
Capturing narrow pulses correctly can be difficult. Radar equipment is one area where short pulses of RF energy form the basis of operation of the system, and when testing these systems it is necessary to capture the waveforms accurately to investigate any issues or test them to ensure the system is working correctly. The R&S®SMA100B analog RF and microwave signal generator with its high-quality pulse modulator provides narrow pulse modulation. Thanks to a powerful closed-loop level control concept also for narrow pulses, outstanding level accuracy and repeatability is now available for pulse widths starting at 100 ns.Read more
Waveform analysis is often a key component of any oscilloscope measurement. Whilst today's scopes have very high levels of processing, it is often necessary to download the waveform data onto a computer which will be able to provide all the applications and processing power required for a greater level of post processing. To achieve this it is necessary to download the waveform data as swiftly as possible. Find out how this can be done.Read more
When developing applications for Internet of Things / M2M applications it is essential to ensure that both RF and digital aspects operate properly together. The only way this can often be achieved is by using a multi-domain measuring instrument. Find out how this can be done.Read more
Measuring noise and ripple on power rails with small voltages and increasingly tighter tolerances is a challenge for oscilloscopes. Using a standard 500 MHz passive probe with a 10:1 attenuation results in additional measurement noise, causing overstated peak-to-peak voltage measurements and masking signal details. Additionally a high oscilloscope resolution is needed to convert the small detail in the presence of larger voltages. Find out how this can be done.Read more
Power quality is a key aspect of many power installations. Power quality measurements characterise the degree to which a practical supply resembles the ideal situation, in terms of harmonic pollution, reactive power and load imbalance. These measurements can be undertaken using an oscilloscope. Find out more . . .Read more
Household appliances with thermostats such as refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines or tumble driers generate discontinuous disturbances, which are referred to as click disturbances. These clicks occur sporadically, and are therefore subject to limit values different from those applicable to continuous disturbances. Find out more about testing these disturbances and performing click rate analysis in accordance with CISPR 16-1-1 and CISPR 14-1 / EN 55014-1. The equipment described features realtime graphic display of the maximum peak and quasi-peak values. After the measurement, a test report can be displayed and printed.Read more
This is a particularly useful application note that explains how to detect, characterise, find and document interferers in cellular networks using the R&S®FSH spectrum analyser. There is plenty of useful information about interference detection and hunting as well as that on how to use the FSH spectrum analyser.Read more
What is different when testing GNSS receivers? Currently, the bands adjacent to GNSS frequencies are not used by high-power signals, and there is no legislation on receiver performance. Therefore GNSS receivers are highly susceptible to interference, and this does not just apply tot he low cost models. As a result, regulatory authorities cannot assign the bands adjacent to the GNSS bands to other services, such as mobile broadband services, and this contradicts the goal of efficient spectrum usage. Find out more about GNSS receiver testing.Read more
High-speed serial interfaces often transmit data with differential signalling. For probing on the signal trace, differential probes are needed. Besides the differential inputs, these probes often provide an additional connection for ground – especially the higher bandwidth models. The ground connection on the R&S®RT‑ZMxx modular multimode probes can be used to improve measurements on high-speed differential interfaces. Find out more about differential measurements & probes . .Read more
Find faults in the field can be more difficult than in the laboratory because there may not be sufficient test equipment available. Having the right portable equipment can vastly improve the ability to fault find away from base. However this equipment needs to be small, battery powered, effective and robust. Read more . . . .Read more
When a circuit is works incorrectly, there is often little time to correct the problem; design and development results must be delivered quickly. Correction can be difficult with conventional edge triggers because the error state cannot be precisely selected. Solutions tailored to the specific problem are required in this situation. This application note looks at the ways in which specialised triggering methods can be used to identify problems and issues quicklyRead more
This interesting free white-paper looks at sporadic errors in measurements. Sporadic errors cost valuable time during the development of new products. Debugging protocol-based buses is especially difficult and time-consuming because the communications pauses between the individual data packets can be very long. For example, a sensor will send a value over an I2C bus only once per minute. The oscilloscope memory typically limits the record length for analyzing errors and their history to a few milliseconds.Read more
This very informative educational note covers the theory and practice oscilloscopes based on concrete measurement examples that address authentic everyday tasks.
The theoretical portion of this paper begins with an explanation of the basic operating concepts for oscilloscopes, followed by a discussion of the most important parameters to be considered when setting up and performing the exercise measurements.
The practical portion of the educational note contains detailed measurement tasks that can be performed by small groups in the university lab. These exercises are intended to demonstrate and reinforce the knowledge gained in the theoretical portion. The exercises build upon one another and demonstrate measurement tasks that are frequently encountered by engineers in daily work.Read more
The 5G NR, New Radio involves many new concepts and techniques. It will support frequency ranges up to 52.6 GHz, but initial 5G designs will use frequencies below 6 GHz with focus on 3.5 GHz. For sub-6 GHz carrier frequencies, 3GPP currently discusses a maximum bandwidth per component carrier of 100 MHz. The R&S®CMW100 communications manufacturing test set with a supported bandwidth of 160 MHz is ready for testing initial 5G NR sub-6 GHz wireless devices in production. Find out more in this webinarRead more
This webinar provide an overview on the current discussions within the standardisation organisation, summarise recent decisions and explain the initial access concept while comparing it with LTE. In addition to this, the webinar shows how to generate 5G NR-like waveforms to test the performance of RF frontend modules (RFEM) and RF components such as amplifiers and filters. Find out more . . .Read more