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Focus on Test

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from Rohde & Schwarz

Testing is key to any electronics activity. It is necessary to test an item to ensure that it operates correctly. The test equipment is also key as it provides the functionality to be able to make the tests that are needed - having the right test equipment and knowing how to use it of great importance. In this area, discover some important insights into testing, test equipment and some useful techniques that can be used.

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R&S®TS-290 IoT Carrier Acceptance Test System

With the Internet of Things, IoT use set to mushroom in the coming years, easy to use but robust testing is required. The R&S TS 290 system provides combined support for RF, data throughput and protocol tests on one platform, making testing easy yet comprehensive and accurate.

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Testing IoT designs with the R&S®RTO2000

Testing IoT devices can present some very demanding challenges for the development engineer where frequency and time domain measurements need to be made. Logic analysis and other types of measurement may also need to be performed. In most cases, wireless communications modules are added to an embedded design. When designing and debugging IoT systems, many different measurements need to be performed. Since developers are very familiar with using an oscilloscope for voltage and time measurements, they also want to use it to for all other necessary measurements. And now they can – with the R&S®RTO2000 multi-domain oscilloscope. Read more . . .

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Increase the IP connection security of your IoT device

Security is a major issue these days. With the Internet is becoming more integrated into our lives with an increasing number of connected devices equipped with cellular and non-cellular wireless modules to exchange data, monitor measured values or even remotely control a system, there is a real danger of hackers entering the system and using it to their own ends. As the number of things communicating with each other is expected to drastically increase over the next years, for example in the automotive, health care and robot control industries, the opportunities for security breaches will only increase. Testing to ensure security is now as important as ever it was. Find out more . . .

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Testing uplink accuracy for WLAN IEEE 802.11ax

Wi-Fi standard IEEE 802.11ax is the latest in the 802.11 series of Wi-Fi standards and it promises to provide some significant real advantages for the user. However, as with any system, testing is key, and with 802.11ax there are some new challenges. Rohde & Schwarz signal generators and spectrum analyzers can be used to test IEEE 802.11ax stations in terms of uplink accuracy requirements. Measurements such as residual carrier frequency error and timing accuracy of HE TB PPDU transmissions are supported.

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Narrowband Internet of Things Measurements

The Internet of Things, IoT with its machine to machine communications is considered the driving force of current and future wireless communications. In release 13, 3GPP has specified Narrowband-IoT, NB-IoT as a new physical layer. Measuring the RF and other signals is key to its correct operation. This application note gives a short introduction to NB-IoT and shows the easy measurements with Rohde & Schwarz instruments.

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Pre-5G NR Signal Generation & Analysis

With 5G NR products now being developed, signal generation and analysis of the waveforms is key. This whitepaper shows how to test a single user interface for signal generation and analysis configuration, flexible OFDM configuration and signal generation incl. flexible pilot and data allocation, and user defined modulation schemes including complex scenarios, e.g. 5G NR PSS. Find out more . . .

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Demystifying the 5G NR Physical Layer

The 5G NR, 5G New Radio specification has been available for a while, but there is a lot of mystery surrounding it. This R&S webinar seeks to clarify exactly what 5G NR is and what it is not. If you want to find out watch it now . . . .

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Outphasing, Envelope Tracking & Doherty Transmitter Test Measurement

Output efficiency for output devices for the transmit section of mobile devices is Meeting the efficiency challenge is increasingly difficult at higher operating frequencies and bandwidths, such as those proposed for 5G. Doherty amplifiers use an architecture where the signal output is constructed from two, or more, efficiently generated components. This signal construction in effect, means that such architectures use predictive, post-correction linearization. Their predictive nature enables distortion to be completely eliminated. This whitepaper describes a solution to measure the energy efficiency of RF Frontends, especially transmitters, working in the 3.5 GHz NR candidate band. But its findings are equally applicable to measurements for K-band satellite application or mmW NR candidate bands. Read more . .

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Passive Antenna Measurement and Nearfield – Farfield Transformation

One of the key areas of interest with 5G is that of mmWave communications. The antennas will be a key element for this and measuring an optimising performance is key. This application note describes how to measure the antenna pattern of a mm-Wave device in the R&S®ATS1000 shielded chamber. This includes the required calibration of the measurement setup and a possible near field to far field transformation when measuring larger devices. Find out more . . .

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DDR3 Signal Integrity Debugging

Debugging DDR3 memory circuits can be very difficult. Data is passed at very fast rates. Oscilloscopes are often needed but few manage to achieve the required speeds. Find out how to debug DDR3 circuits.

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First class ADCs thanks to first class signals

With the world moving further towards digital technologies and approaches, there is a growing need for high performance analogue to digital converters, ADCs. Their performance will govern that of the whole system. These need to be characterised and their performance in circuit need to be analysed. Find out more in this useful video.

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USB 3.1 interface debug with Realtime Deembedding

Fast digital interfaces like the USB 3 interface transfer data at phenomenally high rates. Many oscilloscopes cannot cope wit this, and those that can find that the cables introduce attenuation, and delays. A concept called de-embedding enables these inaccuracies to be removed. Find out how this can be achieved int his useful video.

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Comparison of jitter measurements in the time and frequency domain

When analyzing the robustness of data transmission systems, jitter is a key indicator. It is recommended to use jitter measurement instruments for both the time and frequency domain in order to differentiate between fast and slow moving artifacts. Jitter measurements are not always easy, so this paper provides some very useful insights. Read more . . .

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Remote Emulation with the R&S®SMA100B Signal Generator

The R&S SMA100B signal generator offers a remote emulation feature that makes it possible to control the instrument by commands other than the built-in native SCPI commands. This feature allows the user to replace signal generators, e.g. from other manufacturers, with the R&S SMA100B without having to change the remote control code. This feature can be particularly useful when needing to replace a generator to improve performance, to use a generator that is already available, or to use a new generator because the older one is no longer supported.

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First class ADCs thanks to first class signals

Signal sources can be one of the most important elements when testing any system. Put an imperfect signal into a system, then it can give rise to issues that have not been caused by the unit under test. Accordingly choosing the best signal source is key. This video looks at the example of using a Rohde & Schwarz signal source for testing ADCs, and it shows how using a good signal source like this can overcome many issues that might be experienced with lesser equipment.

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When you need an ideal clock source

Clock sources are very important in testing many circuits, and they are often forgotten. Modern digital designs and data converters can only work as well as the clock source allows. To bring out the best performance of a data converter design, an ideal clock source is required to minimize any influence on the signal purity of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) output or the sampled data of an analog-to-digital (ADC) converter. As clock rates increase, the requirements for signal quality remain or become even more demanding. The bottom line is that you need a flexible clock source that can provide the signals needed for today’s and tomorrow’s designs with minimal jitter and noise as well as best spectral purity.

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Generating narrow pulses with highest level accuracy and repeatability with the R&S®SMA100B

Capturing narrow pulses correctly can be difficult. Radar equipment is one area where short pulses of RF energy form the basis of operation of the system, and when testing these systems it is necessary to capture the waveforms accurately to investigate any issues or test them to ensure the system is working correctly. The R&S®SMA100B analog RF and microwave signal generator with its high-quality pulse modulator provides narrow pulse modulation. Thanks to a powerful closed-loop level control concept also for narrow pulses, outstanding level accuracy and repeatability is now available for pulse widths starting at 100 ns.

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Fast Download of Oscilloscope Waveform Data

Waveform analysis is often a key component of any oscilloscope measurement. Whilst today's scopes have very high levels of processing, it is often necessary to download the waveform data onto a computer which will be able to provide all the applications and processing power required for a greater level of post processing. To achieve this it is necessary to download the waveform data as swiftly as possible. Find out how this can be done.

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Multi-Domain Debugging of Embedded IoT Devices Using Oscilloscopes

When developing applications for Internet of Things / M2M applications it is essential to ensure that both RF and digital aspects operate properly together. The only way this can often be achieved is by using a multi-domain measuring instrument. Find out how this can be done.

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Making Power Integrity Measurements with Oscilloscopes

Measuring noise and ripple on power rails with small voltages and increasingly tighter tolerances is a challenge for oscilloscopes. Using a standard 500 MHz passive probe with a 10:1 attenuation results in additional measurement noise, causing overstated peak-to-peak voltage measurements and masking signal details. Additionally a high oscilloscope resolution is needed to convert the small detail in the presence of larger voltages. Find out how this can be done.

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Measuring the Power Quality in Electrical Installations

Power quality is a key aspect of many power installations. Power quality measurements characterise the degree to which a practical supply resembles the ideal situation, in terms of harmonic pollution, reactive power and load imbalance. These measurements can be undertaken using an oscilloscope. Find out more . . .

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