Focus on Test

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from Rohde & Schwarz

Testing is key to any electronics activity. It is necessary to test an item to ensure that it operates correctly. The test equipment is also key as it provides the functionality to be able to make the tests that are needed - having the right test equipment and knowing how to use it of great importance. In this area, discover some important insights into testing, test equipment and some useful techniques that can be used.

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R&S SMBV100B Vector Signal Generator

Modern communications systems and RF signals often use highly complex modulation signals and testing them requires signal generators that not only offer the best performance, but the capability to offer I and Q components to a signal. Vector signal generators are the ideal choice for these applications. Find out about the R&S SMBV100B that offers top line performance for a very competitive price.

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Generating a frequency response compensated RF signal

With signal frequencies used for everything from Wi-Fi to cellular communications always increasing, testing of the various elements requires to provide accurate results, even at high frequencies. Ensuring test leads and other components do not affect the readings is vitally important. Find out more about generating a frequency response compensated RF signal . . .

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Using a R&S SMBV100B for generating RF signals with high modulation bandwidths

To satisfy the need for higher modulation bandwidths, the R&S®SMBV100B is equipped with a high performance baseband. Thanks to the generator’s intelligent internal realtime frequency response correction, an extremely high amplitude flatness is achieved across the entire bandwidth of 500 MHz. Find out all you need to know in this video.

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Testing and characterizing wideband receivers and multicarrier amplifiers

Testing and characterising wideband receivers and amplifiers requires the use of a generator with excellent performance. Find out some of the key issues, techniques and equipment to enable the right measurements to be made.

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Faster debugging using specialised triggers

Basic triggering of oscilloscopes is very easy, especially as modern scopes have been designed to facilitate triggering. However there are many advanced triggering features that can be used to give greater insight into the operation of a circuit. Understanding how triggering works, and how some of the features present in many scopes operate, can enable the best to be obtained from the scope and thereby gain the best insight into the operation of the circuit under test. Find out more . . .

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EMI debugging at board level

Debugging a circuit to ensure that it met s the requirements needs the right equipment. Using the R&S Spectrum Rider spectrum analyzer with the R&S HX-15 near field probes provides the needed insight into how signals are being radiated from a board and hence it becomes possible to introduce and test measures to reduce the EMI issues. Find out more . . .

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Analyze EMI problems with the R&S RTO / R&S RTE

Electromagnetic interference is a key parameter that must be considered when designing a new item of electronic equipment, and the right test approach and equipment must be adopted. The R&S RTO / R&S RTE digital oscilloscopes are valuable tools for analyzing EMI problems in electronic designs. High input sensitivity, high dynamic range and a powerful FFT implementation are key features for capturing and analyzing unwanted emissions. Using these scopes will help reduce problems occurring further along the design process, thereby saving considerable costs.

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Safe debugging of embedded power supplies

Embedded power supplies combine traditional power supply components with multiple sensors, processing and control logic as well as digital communications interfaces. Test equipment for debugging requires isolated input channels for measurements of hazardous voltages. Additional digital channels support the analysis of digital signals, while trigger and decode capabilities are essential for time-correlated monitoring of serial protocol-based communications interfaces. These requirements are not always easily met, so find out how to test these supplies in the best manner.

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Testing IoT designs with the R&S®RTO2000

Testing IoT devices can present some very demanding challenges for the development engineer where frequency and time domain measurements need to be made. Logic analysis and other types of measurement may also need to be performed. In most cases, wireless communications modules are added to an embedded design. When designing and debugging IoT systems, many different measurements need to be performed. Since developers are very familiar with using an oscilloscope for voltage and time measurements, they also want to use it to for all other necessary measurements. And now they can – with the R&S®RTO2000 multi-domain oscilloscope. Read more . . .

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Increase the IP connection security of your IoT device

Security is a major issue these days. With the Internet is becoming more integrated into our lives with an increasing number of connected devices equipped with cellular and non-cellular wireless modules to exchange data, monitor measured values or even remotely control a system, there is a real danger of hackers entering the system and using it to their own ends. As the number of things communicating with each other is expected to drastically increase over the next years, for example in the automotive, health care and robot control industries, the opportunities for security breaches will only increase. Testing to ensure security is now as important as ever it was. Find out more . . .

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Testing uplink accuracy for WLAN IEEE 802.11ax

Wi-Fi standard IEEE 802.11ax is the latest in the 802.11 series of Wi-Fi standards and it promises to provide some significant real advantages for the user. However, as with any system, testing is key, and with 802.11ax there are some new challenges. Rohde & Schwarz signal generators and spectrum analyzers can be used to test IEEE 802.11ax stations in terms of uplink accuracy requirements. Measurements such as residual carrier frequency error and timing accuracy of HE TB PPDU transmissions are supported.

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Narrowband Internet of Things Measurements

The Internet of Things, IoT with its machine to machine communications is considered the driving force of current and future wireless communications. In release 13, 3GPP has specified Narrowband-IoT, NB-IoT as a new physical layer. Measuring the RF and other signals is key to its correct operation. This application note gives a short introduction to NB-IoT and shows the easy measurements with Rohde & Schwarz instruments.

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Pre-5G NR Signal Generation & Analysis

With 5G NR products now being developed, signal generation and analysis of the waveforms is key. This whitepaper shows how to test a single user interface for signal generation and analysis configuration, flexible OFDM configuration and signal generation incl. flexible pilot and data allocation, and user defined modulation schemes including complex scenarios, e.g. 5G NR PSS. Find out more . . .

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Demystifying the 5G NR Physical Layer

The 5G NR, 5G New Radio specification has been available for a while, but there is a lot of mystery surrounding it. This R&S webinar seeks to clarify exactly what 5G NR is and what it is not. If you want to find out watch it now . . . .

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Outphasing, Envelope Tracking & Doherty Transmitter Test Measurement

Output efficiency for output devices for the transmit section of mobile devices is Meeting the efficiency challenge is increasingly difficult at higher operating frequencies and bandwidths, such as those proposed for 5G. Doherty amplifiers use an architecture where the signal output is constructed from two, or more, efficiently generated components. This signal construction in effect, means that such architectures use predictive, post-correction linearization. Their predictive nature enables distortion to be completely eliminated. This whitepaper describes a solution to measure the energy efficiency of RF Frontends, especially transmitters, working in the 3.5 GHz NR candidate band. But its findings are equally applicable to measurements for K-band satellite application or mmW NR candidate bands. Read more . .

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Passive Antenna Measurement and Nearfield – Farfield Transformation

One of the key areas of interest with 5G is that of mmWave communications. The antennas will be a key element for this and measuring an optimising performance is key. This application note describes how to measure the antenna pattern of a mm-Wave device in the R&S®ATS1000 shielded chamber. This includes the required calibration of the measurement setup and a possible near field to far field transformation when measuring larger devices. Find out more . . .

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DDR3 Signal Integrity Debugging

Debugging DDR3 memory circuits can be very difficult. Data is passed at very fast rates. Oscilloscopes are often needed but few manage to achieve the required speeds. Find out how to debug DDR3 circuits.

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First class ADCs thanks to first class signals

With the world moving further towards digital technologies and approaches, there is a growing need for high performance analogue to digital converters, ADCs. Their performance will govern that of the whole system. These need to be characterised and their performance in circuit need to be analysed. Find out more in this useful video.

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USB 3.1 interface debug with Realtime Deembedding

Fast digital interfaces like the USB 3 interface transfer data at phenomenally high rates. Many oscilloscopes cannot cope wit this, and those that can find that the cables introduce attenuation, and delays. A concept called de-embedding enables these inaccuracies to be removed. Find out how this can be achieved int his useful video.

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Comparison of jitter measurements in the time and frequency domain

When analyzing the robustness of data transmission systems, jitter is a key indicator. It is recommended to use jitter measurement instruments for both the time and frequency domain in order to differentiate between fast and slow moving artifacts. Jitter measurements are not always easy, so this paper provides some very useful insights. Read more . . .

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Remote Emulation with the R&S®SMA100B Signal Generator

The R&S SMA100B signal generator offers a remote emulation feature that makes it possible to control the instrument by commands other than the built-in native SCPI commands. This feature allows the user to replace signal generators, e.g. from other manufacturers, with the R&S SMA100B without having to change the remote control code. This feature can be particularly useful when needing to replace a generator to improve performance, to use a generator that is already available, or to use a new generator because the older one is no longer supported.

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Gladys West - Pioneer of GPS Sven Etzold | U-blox
Gladys West - Pioneer of GPS
GPS and GNSS positioning technology is such an integral part of our lives today that we rarely stop to think about where it all came from. When we do, we usually picture men in white shirts and dark glasses hunched over calculators and slide rules. In fact, one of the early pioneers behind GPS and GNSS technology was Gladys West - a black woman.

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