Testing is key to any electronics activity. It is necessary to test an item to ensure that it operates correctly. The test equipment is also key as it provides the functionality to be able to make the tests that are needed - having the right test equipment and knowing how to use it of great importance. In this area, discover some important insights into testing, test equipment and some useful techniques that can be used.
With M2M communications for the Internet of Things becoming more widespread and many low cost devices being deployed that are all connected via the Internet, one of the major issues is that of security. Even low cost devices must have high levels of security so they don't become highjacked and used for DNS attacks, etc. Security is also naturally very important when the data being transmitted is more important. The term IP connection security originates from the IT world and describes the procedure used to secure the communications channels between two devices, typically by using authentication and encryption. Authentication and encryption are required for all communications channels to the Internet in order to secure the information exchanged. Find out more about security for the IOT. . . .Read more
LoRa or Long Range is a form of low power low data rate communications aimed at M2M communications for the IoT. It is able to offer long distance coverage using low power as a result of the modulation scheme and receiver characteristics. However, before devices can be used in a LoRaWAN network, they must among other things meet country-specific wireless communications regulations. This application note shows developers and manufacturers of devices with LoRa wireless technology how transmitter measurements are conducted in line with FCC Part 15.247. It also describes how important receiver characteristics can be verified by metrological means. In this context, battery life in particular plays a key role in IoT applications. A further chapter describes how current consumption of LoRa wireless modules can be measured reliably.Read more
One of the most important standards now being used with many IoT applications is Bluetooth and in particular Bluetooth Low Energy. Before a new product with Bluetooth functionality can be launched, the qualification process defined by the Bluetooth SIG must be successfully completed. To save time and money, performance tests need to be performed in the development stage. This application note describes how to use the R&S CMW platform to perform the measurements defined in Bluetooth test specification version 5.Read more
Battery life is a major concern for any portable or mobile device. Automotive applications are now different. As complex applications are added to the connected car, it becomes increasingly important to understand how cellular and non-cellular wireless connections consume power. For example, modules such as those defined for eCall/ERA-Glonass are expected to continue transmitting after a crash for a defined period of time, and telematics units need to regularly attach to the cellular network and may even be required to download a large firmware update over a cellular connection when the car’s engine isn’t running. Find out more . . .Read more
The security of any item on a vehicle is key to its overall security. On device on the vehicle that lets in a hacker is of huge concern and as a result security testing is very important. A considerable number of vehicles will be connected to the Internet using non-cellular technology such as WLAN or a cellular network such as LTE/LTE-A. Whatever route is provided for external connectivity, the security must be rigorously tested. Find out more . . .Read more
Automotive infotainment has come a very long way in recent years. What used to be the car radio has evolved from adding a cassette player to state of the art entertainment on the move. Now infotainment is far more complicated enabling mobile phones to be connected, music devices, SatNav and many more items. The RF testing these can present a real challenge. Find out how to effectively test these systems . . .Read more
Road safety is a global challenge at present and will be in the future. Automotive radar has become a keyword in this area and pushes again a step forward to increase driving comfort, crash prevention and even automated driving. To ensure that any radar systems perform to the required standard they must be tested thoroughly before they are used. Find out more . . . .Read more
Digital oscilloscopes are able to provide new levels of fault-finding functionality. They are able to provide much higher levels of insight into the operation of digital circuits which can prove invaluable in many instances. One of the key advantages of USB power delivery (USB PD) supported by USB Type-C™ connectors is the capability to transmit power up to 100 W. Using low speed signalling, the devices negotiate a USB PD profile. Suppliers of USB Type-C components and device vendors utilising the USB PD standard need to ensure interoperability in terms of protocol handshake and signal integrity. Raed more . . .Read more
Robust and portable oscilloscopes are very important for field service and many other applications. Signal faults and anomalies can cause electrical and electronic systems to fail and they may be located anywhere. Especially in the field, these errors can lead to system downtimes and produce high costs. Consequently, finding them quickly and efficiently as well as identifying their source are crucial. Find out how to achieve fast effective fault finding . . .Read more
The need for Internet of Things (IoT) solutions can arise fast. In most cases, wireless communications modules are added to an embedded design. When designing and debugging IoT systems, many different measurements need to be performed. Since developers are very familiar with using an oscilloscope for voltage and time measurements, they also want to use it to for all other necessary measurements. And now they can – with the R&S®RTO2000 multi-domain oscilloscope. Find out more . . .Read more
Jitter on a signal is of major importance for systems transmitting data. It is recommended to use jitter measurement instruments for both the time and frequency domain in order to differentiate between fast and slow moving artifacts. Read more . . .Read more
5G mobile communications is ow being standardised and development activities have also started. One of the key issues is that of the waveforms to be used. Find out all about the 5G candidate waveforms for transmitting data over 5G networks.Read more
With frequencies of 28GHZ being proposed for 5G technology, t is necessary tog et up to speed on how to measure aspects like beamsteering and other key parameters. Download this useful whitepaper to gain some key insights into beamsteering and other related aspects of base station technology. Conducted measurements will be mainly replaced by over-the-air measurements of electromagnetic radiation. Rohde & Schwarz offers the R&S®NRPM Over-the-Air (OTA) Power Measurement Solution that perfectly fits such measurement needs. Read more . . .Read more
5G is anticipated to revolutionise connectivity - it is far more than just another cellular network. As a result, networks will need to offer more capacity and flexibility while lowering the operational expenses of the system. Two new technologies can simultaneously address both the increase in capacity and the increase in energy efficiency: Virtualization & Massive MIMO. This white paper provides key insights into test solutions addressing current and future requirements for antenna verification including both conducted and over-the-air (OTA) test methods, which result from applying Massive MIMO antenna technology. Find out all you need to know about these exciting new technologies.Read more
Energy efficiency RF transmitter amplifiers continues to be of paramount importance. Meeting the efficiency challenge is increasingly difficult at higher operating frequencies and bandwidths, such as those proposed for 5G.
Technologies including Doherty amplifiers, envelope tracking as well as architectures that use predictive, post-correction linearization are widely used. Their predictive nature enables distortion to be (in theory) completely eliminated, irrespective of the non-linear properties of the individual signal paths.
Find out more about these technologies and their applications for the 3.5 GHz NR (5G New Radio) candidate band. These techniques can easily be transposed to use in K-band satellite applications or mmW NR candidate bands, where efficiency is an even more crucial design target with non-negotiable linearity constraints. Read more . . .Read more
The R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator has the outstanding ability to simultaneously generate up to eight independent signals from a single instrument. The advanced multi-channel architecture allows realizing even complex applications like MSR, carrier aggregation, MIMO or enhanced interference scenarios with a minimum of effort. Read more . . .Read more
RF pulse measurements, to characterize the signal in the frequency domain, are traditionally carried out on an RF spectrum analyzer. For time related pulse parameters, oscilloscopes are widely used. However, the measurement capabilities of state of the art test and measurement equipment has evolved over time and crosses domains. With a combination of a digital oscilloscope and dedicated pulse analysis software, pulse signals can be analyzed in both domains, frequency and time.Read more
Phase distortions in a transmission channel need to be as low as possible to maintain good signal quality, especially with phase based data modulation schemes. Accordingly it is necessary to measure the performance of systems and this is often achieved using group delay measurements. Vector network analyzers are normally used to characterize the group delay variations as a measure of phase distortion. Find out how this can be achieved along with some key practical aspects of making successful measurements.Read more
Designing and implementing an active phased array antenna requires precise characterization of individual components and the integrated performance of the array. To ensure an accurate test of the intended adaptive nature of the active phased array antenna, the embedded algorithms need to be tested as well. Find out about the test procedures and read about recommendations for the characterization of the relevant parameters for active phased array antennas and their passive subsystem, as often used in applications for Mobile Communication and RADAR. Read more . . . .Read more
This application note explains how to generate phase coherent signals using signal generators. It details what to consider and how to best calibrate the relative phases and timing between the individual channels. In addition to this it includes in-depth details about measurements of the phase stability over time for different RF frequencies. Read more . . .Read more