Testing is key to any electronics activity. It is necessary to test an item to ensure that it operates correctly. The test equipment is also key as it provides the functionality to be able to make the tests that are needed - having the right test equipment and knowing how to use it of great importance. In this area, discover some important insights into testing, test equipment and some useful techniques that can be used.
5G is anticipated to revolutionise connectivity - it is far more than just another cellular network. As a result, networks will need to offer more capacity and flexibility while lowering the operational expenses of the system. Two new technologies can simultaneously address both the increase in capacity and the increase in energy efficiency: Virtualization & Massive MIMO. This white paper provides key insights into test solutions addressing current and future requirements for antenna verification including both conducted and over-the-air (OTA) test methods, which result from applying Massive MIMO antenna technology. Find out all you need to know about these exciting new technologies.Read more
Energy efficiency RF transmitter amplifiers continues to be of paramount importance. Meeting the efficiency challenge is increasingly difficult at higher operating frequencies and bandwidths, such as those proposed for 5G.
Technologies including Doherty amplifiers, envelope tracking as well as architectures that use predictive, post-correction linearization are widely used. Their predictive nature enables distortion to be (in theory) completely eliminated, irrespective of the non-linear properties of the individual signal paths.
Find out more about these technologies and their applications for the 3.5 GHz NR (5G New Radio) candidate band. These techniques can easily be transposed to use in K-band satellite applications or mmW NR candidate bands, where efficiency is an even more crucial design target with non-negotiable linearity constraints. Read more . . .Read more
The R&S®SMW200A vector signal generator has the outstanding ability to simultaneously generate up to eight independent signals from a single instrument. The advanced multi-channel architecture allows realizing even complex applications like MSR, carrier aggregation, MIMO or enhanced interference scenarios with a minimum of effort. Read more . . .Read more
RF pulse measurements, to characterize the signal in the frequency domain, are traditionally carried out on an RF spectrum analyzer. For time related pulse parameters, oscilloscopes are widely used. However, the measurement capabilities of state of the art test and measurement equipment has evolved over time and crosses domains. With a combination of a digital oscilloscope and dedicated pulse analysis software, pulse signals can be analyzed in both domains, frequency and time.Read more
Phase distortions in a transmission channel need to be as low as possible to maintain good signal quality, especially with phase based data modulation schemes. Accordingly it is necessary to measure the performance of systems and this is often achieved using group delay measurements. Vector network analyzers are normally used to characterize the group delay variations as a measure of phase distortion. Find out how this can be achieved along with some key practical aspects of making successful measurements.Read more
Designing and implementing an active phased array antenna requires precise characterization of individual components and the integrated performance of the array. To ensure an accurate test of the intended adaptive nature of the active phased array antenna, the embedded algorithms need to be tested as well. Find out about the test procedures and read about recommendations for the characterization of the relevant parameters for active phased array antennas and their passive subsystem, as often used in applications for Mobile Communication and RADAR. Read more . . . .Read more
This application note explains how to generate phase coherent signals using signal generators. It details what to consider and how to best calibrate the relative phases and timing between the individual channels. In addition to this it includes in-depth details about measurements of the phase stability over time for different RF frequencies. Read more . . .Read more
Radar test systems are essential in research, development, production and maintenance of radar systems. Most radar tests are expensive to carry out in the field and have a complicated setup and operation. One of the main advantages of the Radar Echo Generator presented in this application note is its ability to generate arbitrary virtual radar echo signals in real time in the laboratory using only commercial measuring equipment. The Radar Echo Generator not only allows to reproduce the results and automate the tests, but also it significantly reduces the measurement effort and costs while providing greater utility for the existing common test equipment. Read more . . .Read more
Multichannel vector signal generators can be used to set up a variety of scenarios for testing modern RF electronics systems. With many complex applications like testing MSR, carrier aggregation, MIMO and enhanced interference scenarios the new generation of advanced vector signal generators provides an easy means of realising these test applications.Read more
The Internet of Things or IoT is one of the major driving forces, not only for wireless communications, but also the wider electronics scene. There are many wireless standards that cater for IoT data communications, but the cellular standards are now providing more capability in this area. In release 13, 3GPP has specified Narrowband-IoT, NB-IoT, as a new physical layer. Find out more about NB-IoT and how to make some of the essential measurements.Read more
One of the key requirements for any Internet of Things, IoT device is that of its power consumption. The level of power will determine the lifetime of devices and as a result the power consumption is key. Measurement does not just mean measuring a simple average voltage and current, but needs to be far more sophisticated to gain real insight into the issue. Find out how meaningful power measurements can be made.Read more
Bluetooth has been an unparalleled success. It is the wireless standard that is in many billions of consumer devices from phones to headphones and wireless speakers to computers, automobiles, wearables and many more. Find out more about the various Bluetooth technologies and in particular what Bluetooth 5 is.Read more
Mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are superseding traditional desktop PCs as the primary medium for accessing the Internet. The rising popularity of third party mobile applications, or mobile apps, has given rise to a significant increase in the volume of data being communicated. With the Internet of Things also coming on line, the overall level of data carried by mobile networks is set to rise significantly leading to a need to optimise data traffic. Find out more . . .Read more