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Focus on Test

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from Rohde & Schwarz

Testing is key to any electronics activity. It is necessary to test an item to ensure that it operates correctly. The test equipment is also key as it provides the functionality to be able to make the tests that are needed - having the right test equipment and knowing how to use it of great importance. In this area, discover some important insights into testing, test equipment and some useful techniques that can be used.

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R&S®RTA4000 oscilloscope

Designed with class-leading signal integrity and responsive ultra-deep memory, the R&S®RTA4000 brings the power of a 10-bit ADC to a new level. Using a 10-bit ADC brings a whole new level of detail to signals, whether displayed in screen or analysed using applications on off off the scope. The RTA4000 also provides class-leading noise and memory depth to give sharp waveforms, more accurate measurements and confidence when facing unexpected measurement challenges.

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Multi-Domain Debugging of Embedded IoT Devices Using Oscilloscopes

When developing applications for Internet of Things / M2M applications it is essential to ensure that both RF and digital aspects operate properly together. The only way this can often be achieved is by using a multi-domain measuring instrument. Find out how this can be done.

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Making Power Integrity Measurements with Oscilloscopes

Measuring noise and ripple on power rails with small voltages and increasingly tighter tolerances is a challenge for oscilloscopes. Using a standard 500 MHz passive probe with a 10:1 attenuation results in additional measurement noise, causing overstated peak-to-peak voltage measurements and masking signal details. Additionally a high oscilloscope resolution is needed to convert the small detail in the presence of larger voltages. Find out how this can be done.

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Measuring the Power Quality in Electrical Installations

Power quality is a key aspect of many power installations. Power quality measurements characterise the degree to which a practical supply resembles the ideal situation, in terms of harmonic pollution, reactive power and load imbalance. These measurements can be undertaken using an oscilloscope. Find out more . . .

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Click Rate Analyzer for EMI Test Receivers R&S®ESW, R&S®ESU, R&S®ESR and R&S®ESCI

Household appliances with thermostats such as refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines or tumble driers generate discontinuous disturbances, which are referred to as click disturbances. These clicks occur sporadically, and are therefore subject to limit values different from those applicable to continuous disturbances. Find out more about testing these disturbances and performing click rate analysis in accordance with CISPR 16-1-1 and CISPR 14-1 / EN 55014-1. The equipment described features realtime graphic display of the maximum peak and quasi-peak values. After the measurement, a test report can be displayed and printed.

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Interference Hunting with R&S®FSH

This is a particularly useful application note that explains how to detect, characterise, find and document interferers in cellular networks using the R&S®FSH spectrum analyser. There is plenty of useful information about interference detection and hunting as well as that on how to use the FSH spectrum analyser.

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GNSS receiver testing in accordance to RED 2014/53/EU Article 3.2

What is different when testing GNSS receivers? Currently, the bands adjacent to GNSS frequencies are not used by high-power signals, and there is no legislation on receiver performance. Therefore GNSS receivers are highly susceptible to interference, and this does not just apply tot he low cost models. As a result, regulatory authorities cannot assign the bands adjacent to the GNSS bands to other services, such as mobile broadband services, and this contradicts the goal of efficient spectrum usage. Find out more about GNSS receiver testing.

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Optimize differential measurements on high-speed interfaces

High-speed serial interfaces often transmit data with differential signalling. For probing on the signal trace, differential probes are needed. Besides the differential inputs, these probes often provide an additional connection for ground – especially the higher bandwidth models. The ground connection on the R&S®RT‑ZMxx modular multimode probes can be used to improve measurements on high-speed differential interfaces. Find out more about differential measurements & probes . .

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Quick and efficient troubleshooting with the R&S Scope Rider

Find faults in the field can be more difficult than in the laboratory because there may not be sufficient test equipment available. Having the right portable equipment can vastly improve the ability to fault find away from base. However this equipment needs to be small, battery powered, effective and robust. Read more . . . .

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Faster debugging using specialized triggers

When a circuit is works incorrectly, there is often little time to correct the problem; design and development results must be delivered quickly. Correction can be difficult with conventional edge triggers because the error state cannot be precisely selected. Solutions tailored to the specific problem are required in this situation. This application note looks at the ways in which specialised triggering methods can be used to identify problems and issues quickly

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Fast analysis of sporadic errors with segmented memory and history function

This interesting free white-paper looks at sporadic errors in measurements. Sporadic errors cost valuable time during the development of new products. Debugging protocol-based buses is especially difficult and time-consuming because the communications pauses between the individual data packets can be very long. For example, a sensor will send a value over an I2C bus only once per minute. The oscilloscope memory typically limits the record length for analyzing errors and their history to a few milliseconds.

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Measuring with oscilloscopes

This very informative educational note covers the theory and practice oscilloscopes based on concrete measurement examples that address authentic everyday tasks.

The theoretical portion of this paper begins with an explanation of the basic operating concepts for oscilloscopes, followed by a discussion of the most important parameters to be considered when setting up and performing the exercise measurements.

The practical portion of the educational note contains detailed measurement tasks that can be performed by small groups in the university lab. These exercises are intended to demonstrate and reinforce the knowledge gained in the theoretical portion. The exercises build upon one another and demonstrate measurement tasks that are frequently encountered by engineers in daily work.

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Demystifying 5G - Ready for testing 5G NR sub-6 GHz devices in production with the R&S CMW100

The 5G NR, New Radio involves many new concepts and techniques. It will support frequency ranges up to 52.6 GHz, but initial 5G designs will use frequencies below 6 GHz with focus on 3.5 GHz. For sub-6 GHz carrier frequencies, 3GPP currently discusses a maximum bandwidth per component carrier of 100 MHz. The R&S®CMW100 communications manufacturing test set with a supported bandwidth of 160 MHz is ready for testing initial 5G NR sub-6 GHz wireless devices in production. Find out more in this webinar

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Demystifying 5G – Numerology and Initial Access Concept for 5G NR

This webinar provide an overview on the current discussions within the standardisation organisation, summarise recent decisions and explain the initial access concept while comparing it with LTE. In addition to this, the webinar shows how to generate 5G NR-like waveforms to test the performance of RF frontend modules (RFEM) and RF components such as amplifiers and filters. Find out more . . .

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The challenge of testing 5G antenna performance

Antenna testing for 5G mobile communications will present some new and interesting challenges. The wide frequency range, the greater number of antenna elements and the lack of conventional external RF connectors make 5G antenna characterisation challenging. To assess the complete performance of 5G over-the-air (OTA), e.g. beam characteristics, coexistence testing and near-field and far-field measurements, fast and accurate pattern measurements are essential. Find out more about 5G antenna testing.

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Pre-5G-NR Signal Generation and Analysis

This application note shows how to use Rohde & Schwarz signal generators and analyzers for testing early 5G New Radio components, chipsets and devices. Methods for easy creation and analysis of custom OFDM are explained. The solution provides

  • a single user interface for signal generation and analysis configuration

  • Flexible OFDM configuration and signal generation incl. flexible pilot and data allocation

  • User defined modulation schemes including complex scenarios, e.g. 5G NR PSS

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Characterization of SIGFOX Devices

SIGFOX is a low power Wireless standard for M2M applications that is being increasingly deployed. The application note guides developers and manufactures of SIGFOX Devices to perform the required and recommended measurements with test solutions from Rohde & Schwarz. The note will help bring ultranarrowband IoT devices and applications using SIGFOX technology to the market as fast as possible and help ensure the desired quality and performance.

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Increase the IP connection security of your IoT device

With M2M communications for the Internet of Things becoming more widespread and many low cost devices being deployed that are all connected via the Internet, one of the major issues is that of security. Even low cost devices must have high levels of security so they don't become highjacked and used for DNS attacks, etc. Security is also naturally very important when the data being transmitted is more important. The term IP connection security originates from the IT world and describes the procedure used to secure the communications channels between two devices, typically by using authentication and encryption. Authentication and encryption are required for all communications channels to the Internet in order to secure the information exchanged. Find out more about security for the IOT. . . .

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Characterization of LoRa Devices

LoRa or Long Range is a form of low power low data rate communications aimed at M2M communications for the IoT. It is able to offer long distance coverage using low power as a result of the modulation scheme and receiver characteristics. However, before devices can be used in a LoRaWAN network, they must among other things meet country-specific wireless communications regulations. This application note shows developers and manufacturers of devices with LoRa wireless technology how transmitter measurements are conducted in line with FCC Part 15.247. It also describes how important receiver characteristics can be verified by metrological means. In this context, battery life in particular plays a key role in IoT applications. A further chapter describes how current consumption of LoRa wireless modules can be measured reliably.

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Bluetooth Low Energy (V5.0) RF-Test for Internet of Things Applications

One of the most important standards now being used with many IoT applications is Bluetooth and in particular Bluetooth Low Energy. Before a new product with Bluetooth functionality can be launched, the qualification process defined by the Bluetooth SIG must be successfully completed. To save time and money, performance tests need to be performed in the development stage. This application note describes how to use the R&S CMW platform to perform the measurements defined in Bluetooth test specification version 5.

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Battery life measurements in the connected car

Battery life is a major concern for any portable or mobile device. Automotive applications are now different. As complex applications are added to the connected car, it becomes increasingly important to understand how cellular and non-cellular wireless connections consume power. For example, modules such as those defined for eCall/ERA-Glonass are expected to continue transmitting after a crash for a defined period of time, and telematics units need to regularly attach to the cellular network and may even be required to download a large firmware update over a cellular connection when the car’s engine isn’t running. Find out more . . .

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