RFID Frequencies and Frequency Bands
- details of RFID, Radio Frequency Identification frequencies, frequency bands and channels.
RFID, Radio Frequency Identification technology tutorial includes:• What is RFID? - technology tutorial • RFID history • RFID coupling techniques • RFID tags and tagging • RFID readers and writers • RFID antennas • RFID frequencies & bands • RFID security & privacy • RFID standards
NFC Near Field Communications
There are a number of RFID frequencies, or RFID frequency bands that systems may use.
The frequency used by the RFID system determines many of the characteristics about the way in which it will operate. As a result, determining the correct RFID frequency band is an important early decision in the development process.
RFID frequency band allocations
There is a total of four different RFID frequency bands or RFID frequencies that are used around the globe. These are placed widely different areas within the radio frequency spectrum and this enables RFID to choose frequencies that will enable the right system parameters to be obtained.
|Typical Range||Typical RFID Applications|
|125-134.2 kHz and 140-148.5 kHz||Low frequency||Up to ~ 1/2 metre||Can be used globally without a license. Often used for vehicle identification. Sometimes referred to as LowFID.|
|6.765 - 6.795 MHz||Medium frequency||Inductive coupling|
|13.553 - 13.567 MHz||High Frequency
Often called 13.56 MHz
|Up to ~ 1 metre||Used for electronic ticketing, contactless payment, access control, garment tracking, etc|
|26.957 - 27.283 MHz||Medium frequency||Up to ~ 1 metre||Inductive coupling only, and used for special applications.|
|433 MHz||UHF||Backscatter coupling, used for remote car keys in Europe|
|858 - 930 MHz||Ultra High Frequency
|1 to 10 metres||This band cannot be accessed globally and there are significant restrictions on its use. When it is used, it is often used for asset management, container tracking, baggage tracking, work in progress tracking, etc. and often in conjunction with Wi-Fi systems.
For further information on its use see the paragraph below.
|2.400 - 2.483 GHz||SHF||Backscatter coupling, but only available in USA / Canada|
|2.446 - 2.454GHz||SHF||3 metres upwards||Used for long range tracking and with active tags, RFID and AVI (Automatic Vehicle Identification). Uses backscatter coupling|
|5.725 - 5.875 GHz||SHF||Backscatter coupling. Not widely used for RFID.|
858 - 930 MHz UHF RFID Band
As the UHF RFID band is not a global allocation, it cannot be used internationally. Where access is allowed, it may be found that there are different restrictions in different countries.
|North America||Here the UHF RFID band can be used unlicensed within the limits of 915 MHz ± 15MHz (i.e. 902 - 928 MHz). There are restrictions on transmission power.|
|Europe (less exclusions)||Within this region, the RFID frequencies (and other low-power radio applications) specified ETSI recommendations EN 300 220 and EN 302 208, and ERO recommendation 70 03. These allow RFID operation within the band 865-868 MHz, but with some involved restrictions. RFID readers must to monitor a channel before transmitting - "Listen Before Talk".|
|France||The North American standard is not accepted within France as it interferes with frequencies allocated to the military.|
|China and Japan||There are no licence free RFID bands or frequencies. However it is possible to request a licence for UHF RFID which is granted in a site basis.|
|Australia & New Zealand||Within this area the RFID band exists between 918-926 MHz as these frequencies are unlicensed, but there are restrictions on the transmission power.|
When looking at using, developing or setting up an RFID system it is necessary to consider the frequencies that are to be used as spectrum allocations and general regulations vary from country to country. This is particularly true for UHF RFID usage.
By Ian Poole
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